PIN-to-PAP Distance

Decisions Decisions

There are many decisions that need to be made after purchasing your newest bowling ball. All of them are pieces of a puzzle that fit together properly to create good ball motion. The Pin-to-PAP distance is going to be the first and one of the most important decisions that should be made regarding the layout. Of the changes you can make to a layout, Pin-to-PAP distance is going to have the greatest effect. If you are starting to build a new arsenal, it is best to take a look at some of your current equipment to see what types of Pin-to-PAP distances you have been utilizing. You may notice you prefer certain distances over others. You might find that all of your equipment utilizes a similar distance. Does that distance match up well to your ball speed/rev rate or the conditions you are bowling on?

Pin-to-PAP distance might happen to be the piece of the puzzle that was missing for you.

After reading this article, you may begin to understand why you struggle on certain conditions. The goal of this article is to open your eyes to experimenting with different Pin-to-PAP distances to create different shapes. Let’s take a look at some background information on what the Pin-to-PAP distance is and how it affects ball reaction.

 

Orientation of the core

The Pin-to-PAP distance (appropriately enough) is the distance from your positive axis point to the pin. It is going to control how much of the core's flare potential you utilize in the bowling ball. It is controlling how the core is oriented at the moment of release. The Pin-to-PAP distance can range anywhere from 0 to 6 ¾". You might notice that this is approximately 1/4 of the bowling ball. We have turned the coverstock and core translucent in the above figures to show you the orientation of the weight block with different Pin-to-PAP distances. It's important to note that these do not take into consideration axis rotation or axis tilt. They are simply rolling forward with 0 degrees of both axis rotation and axis tilt. Figure 1.1 shows the position of the core at release with a 0" Pin-to-PAP distance. We've put a green dot on the weight block to aid in visualizing the rotation since there is minimal movement. This illustrates how stable the weight block is upon release and why it doesn't create a significant amount of track flare. It is rotating around the lowest RG axis. Skip over to Figure 1.3. Once again the weight block is in an extremely stable position. It is standing completely up rotating around the highest RG axis. Figure 1.2 illustrates the rotation of the weight block exactly halfway between these two points at 3 ⅜". The weight block will be in the most unstable position because it is sitting at a 45-degree angle inside the ball at the release point. This is going to result in the highest amount of track flare that particular core can produce. Different cores are going to produce different amounts of flare depending on the amount of total differential in the shape of the weight block inside of the core. Simple shapes can produce as little as 1" of flare. More complex shapes can produce upwards of 6" of total flare on the bowling ball. Now that we know the flare potential of the bowling ball can be manipulated using different Pin-to-PAP distances, we need to see what happens on both sides of the RG curve to understand why a ball can flare the exact same amount, but give us two completely different shapes down the lane.

 

Strong pin-to-pap

Figure 2 shows the general position of the core with a strong Pin-to-PAP distance. You can see that a Pin-to-PAP distance of 3 ⅜" utilizes 100% of the core’s flare potential because it is sitting in the most unstable position at the point of release. This is going to cause the core to wobble more than any other position which produces the most track flare. Stronger Pin-to-PAP distances are going to give you a strong predictable motion that you can count on in the midlane. This can be good in many different situations. One that comes to my mind is when the lanes are transitioning and you need something to blend out the pattern. Depending on the lane surface and volume of the oil pattern, you can even get away with these stronger Pin-to-PAP distances on some shorter patterns because it revs up strong in the midlane and blends out the end of the pattern. If we move up the curve, we increase the distance from 3 ⅜" towards 6 ¾" we utilize the higher RG side of the curve. As we get closer and closer to 6 ¾", the flare potential in the bowling ball is lowered because we are putting the core in a more stable position. This results in the ball hooking less and later down the lane. This happens because we are standing the core up in a more stable position about the higher RG axis. The higher the RG, the more resistant the ball will be to changing direction as it travels down the lane. Using longer Pin-to-PAP distances is going to raise the RG and promote a slower transition with a cleaner shape through the front part of the lane. You will see more change in direction down lane with longer Pin-to-PAP distances.

 

long pin-to-pap

Figure 3 shows the general position of the core with longer Pin-to-PAP distances. In general, longer Pin-to-PAP distances are good to use on the burn when you need the extra tumble through the front part of the lane. The ball is going to want to conserve energy much longer and transition slower. As soon as the bowler releases the ball, the energy the bowler imparts on the ball will begin to be lost. Controlling how quickly the energy is lost is crucial to creating good ball motion. There are more variables than just the Pin-to-PAP distance that influence the rate that energy is lost, but for this article's purpose we are simply looking at this one piece of the puzzle. Using too strong of a Pin-to-PAP distance when the pattern is extremely dry will result in the ball losing too much energy too early on the lane. It is going to be very difficult for the ball to get through the pins properly when it has used up a majority of its energy in the front part of the lane. We only have 15lbs of ball to knock down 34lbs of pins. We need the ball to be in the proper phase of ball motion at the correct entry angle to win the battle. To accomplish this, you'll want to make sure you are using longer Pin-to-PAP distances when the lanes are drier to promote a cleaner look through the front with more energy down lane. This will allow the ball still have enough energy to make it around the corner and get through the pins properly. Keep in mind there are always exceptions in our game, but this gives a good generalization to get your mind headed the right direction.

 

short pin-to-pap

Figure 4 shows the general position of the core with shorter Pin-to-PAP distances. The more we begin to decrease the distance from 3 ⅜" towards 0" we utilize the lower RG side of the curve. As we get closer and closer to 0", the flare potential in the bowling ball is lowered because we are putting the core in a more stable position. This will result in the ball hooking less and earlier on the lane. This happens because we are lying the core down in a more stable position about the lower RG axis. The lower the RG, the less resistant the ball will be to changing direction as it travels down the lane. Using shorter Pin-to-PAP distances is going to promote a faster and smoother transition through the front part of the lane. You will see a much earlier roll with not much direction change down the lane if you utilize shorter Pin-to-PAP distances.

In general, this would be good to use on either the fresh, or a very short pattern where you are looking for control off the end of the pattern. The ball is going to get into a roll extremely early because the core is laying in such a stable position around the lowest RG axis. This means that it will use a lot of its energy early and smooth out the reaction down lane. This can be great when the lanes are really flat and you are looking to stay out of trouble. You will get a smooth predictable reaction out of shorter Pin-to-PAP distances. Of course, it could be a bit of a challenge to get them to go through the pins properly because so much of the energy is used in the front part of the lane. Remember, we have a 15lb ball against 34lbs of pins.

Luckily modern day bowling balls cause lane patterns to transition extremely fast.

The bowler should be able to move from these shorter Pin-to-PAP layouts to other layouts that will give them more shape down lane. Shorter Pin-to-PAP distance layouts definitely aren't what you want to have on every ball, but they can save you from the dreaded 150 game on the fresh or when the pattern is extremely difficult. That could be the difference between winning and losing. It's not always the ball that you throw in the finals that got you the win. Sometimes the unsung hero is the ball that keeps you out of trouble when the lanes are tough. A good arsenal is always going to have at least one shorter Pin-to-PAP distance ball for control.

Symmetrical verses Asymmetrical

One final topic that must be addressed when discussing Pin-to-PAP distance is the different effects it has on a symmetrical ball verses an asymmetrical ball. Figure 5 shows the difference between a symmetrical shape and an asymmetrical shape. Since an asymmetrical ball has the presence of a preferred spin axis (PSA) there can be significant differences when using longer Pin-to-PAP distances. These differences depend on the location of the PSA. If the ball driller puts the PSA in a weak position, longer Pin-to-PAP distances will react similar to a symmetrical ball. If the PSA is placed in a strong position, the ball will actually flare more with longer Pin-to-PAP distances than they will on a symmetrical ball. This is just another example of how much more versatile some of those asymmetrical shapes are. They can be fine-tuned further than a symmetrical ball to get a closer match to what you are looking for.

Wrap-up

Concluding this article, we can see that the Pin-to-PAP distance is a powerful tool in creating proper ball motion. It controls how much flare and what side of the RG curve we use. A problem many bowlers have when they run into issues with carry is their ball either still hooking or being completely rolled out at the pins. There is a small window in there where the ball is in a strong roll. A ball is always going to transfer more energy if it is rolling through the pins. We are bound by the laws of physics in our world. We have 34lbs of pins is standing in the way of a 15lb bowling ball. The pins are always going to win unless we get the ball into the roll phase at the correct time and at the proper entry angle. Pin-to-PAP distance is going to help you control how much energy your ball has and where it begins to use it so you can begin to create the proper shape and entry angle. Always be sure to have a few different Pin-to-PAP distances in your arsenal to be sure that you can create the right amount of flare for anything you are bowling on. As previously stated, there are many more variables that influence ball motion. This article looked solely at Pin-to-PAP distance and held other variables constant. This is just one piece of the puzzle to creating good ball motion. Future articles will cover other pieces of the puzzle to help you understand the entire picture.

 

 


Balance Holes

Background

A balance hole is an extra hole in the bowling ball that is not used for gripping purposes. Balance holes are primarily used to make the ball static weight legal to the current USBC Equipment Specifications and Certifications Manual if they are outside the legal limit after drilling. Once a bowling ball has been drilled, there are still options to fine-tune the reaction for the bowler. This article is going to look at how balance holes can be used to alter the reaction of a bowling ball.

Traditional thinking

Balance holes can influence ball reaction depending on the size and the location of the hole. Before reading this article, take a look at your current equipment. Do any of your bowling balls currently utilize a balance hole? If so, was there any thought put into the location of it, or was it simply to make the ball static weight legal? You may notice that you really like a ball with a certain location and size of balance hole, but it might not be your favorite on a different ball. Why is this? Let's examine.

Traditionally, balance holes were presented in very simple terms. Historically, the higher the balance hole is in relation to the midline, the more it decreases the flare potential of the bowling ball. The lower the balance hole is in relation to the midline, the more it increases the flare potential of the bowling ball. Figure 1 illustrates this. While this is mostly true, there can definitely be some exceptions. Not all balance holes in the same location are going to have the same effect on the ball. There are other variables that are going to influence how they alter the bowling ball's performance.

The term "RG" refers to the radius of gyration - a very important bowling term to become familiar with. This basically tells you how much of the mass is located towards the center of the ball.

Low RG's means more of the mass is centrally located. Higher RG's mean that more of the mass is located away from the center. Lower RG balls are going to require less energy to change direction. They will transition faster and roll earlier. Higher RG balls require more energy to change direction. They will transition slower and roll later.

Every ball is going to have both a low RG and high RG axis. Take a look at Figure 2. It's important to note that the pin is the surface designation for the low RG x-axis of the bowling ball. In general, 6 3/4" from the pin is going to be the high RG y-axis of the bowling ball. The distance from the x-axis to the balance hole is going to be crucial in determining how much and what kind of effect that the balance hole has on the reaction of the bowling ball. Shorter distances (3" or less) to the x-axis are going to decrease reaction. Longer distances (4" or more) to the x-axis are going to increase reaction. Distances somewhere in the middle are going to have little to no effect. Why does this occur? Let's take a look.

the difference in RG's

Every hole that you introduce to a bowling ball is going to raise the RG of the ball in that particular location of the hole itself. We know that the pin designates the low RG axis on the entire ball. Figure 3 represents a 15lb Torrent. Looking at the numbers, a Torrent in this weight has a low RG of 2.56 and differential of 0.044. This means at the location of the pin, the RG of the bowling ball is going to be 2.56. If we go approximately 6 3/4" away from the x-axis, we will find the y-axis. The y-axis is the high RG axis of the bowling ball. This is essentially a 90° angle from the top to the side of the core. The difference between these two axes represent the total differential of the ball. Using some simple math, we can calculate what the high RG axis of an undrilled 15lb Torrent is. 2.56 (Low RG) + 0.044 (Differential) = 2.604 (High RG). It is important to note that the RG of the ball is going to change as we move across the surface of the ball. Somewhere in between 0 and 6 3/4", the RG will be somewhere between 2.56 and 2.604. The shape of the core primarily influences this. Now that we know the RG's of the Torrent, we can take a look at how balance holes are going to influence them.

 

 

Distance from the x-axis

Let's start with hole placements with shorter distances from the x-axis. Imagine putting an extra hole directly through the pin as an extreme example. We know that introducing a hole into the ball is going to raise the RG of the ball in that particular spot. The x-axis is the lowest RG spot on the entire ball. If we add a hole to it, we are raising the RG of the lowest RG spot on the ball. This makes the lowest RG spot on the ball higher and closer to the high RG axis. This is lowering the total differential between the two, which makes the ball weaker and respond slower as it transitions down the lane. Think about where the mass is being taken out of the core. The pin is designating the top of the core. If we drill a hole directly through the pin, we are taking more mass out of the top of the core. This essentially makes the core shorter, which lowers the total differential and raises the overall RG.

Now let's take a look at hole placements with longer distances from the x-axis. Imagine putting an extra hole 6 3/4" away from the x-axis. As always, when introducing a hole into the ball, that hole is going to raise the RG of the ball in that particular spot. Approximately 6 3/4" away from the x-axis is the high RG axis. If we put a hole on the high RG axis, we are raising the RG of the already high RG axis of the ball making it even higher. What is this going to do to the overall differential? The low RG axis remains unchanged, but now the high RG axis is even higher. The total differential has increased and the RG has remained lower. Imagine where the mass is being taken out of the core with the hole 6 3/4" from the pin. All of the mass will be removed from the side of the core. This is going to make it skinnier than it was before compared to its height. This will increase the total differential and keep the overall the RG lower.

Finally, let's take a look at medium distances. If we put an extra hole at 3 3/8"away from the X-axis, we are precisely between both the low RG axis and high RG axis. This is going to have little effect because we are taking mass out at a 45° angle relative to each axis. We are taking mass out of the top and the side which cancels out the effect. If we get farther than the 3 3/8" distance, we remove more mass from the side. If we get closer than the 3 3/8" distance, we remove more mass from the top. Each of these effects have been outlined above and should make sense.

Sizes are pretty self-explanatory. As you can imagine, the larger and deeper the hole, the more effect the hole will have on the reaction of the ball. This is because we are removing more mass out of the core. This means there are a lot of options when it comes to size and depth. I always suggest starting with a smaller hole because you can always increase the size based on what you see from the initial ball reaction.

 

Position on the arc

The final variable to look at is the position of the balance hole on the arc. Let's imagine that we put an extra hole in the ball 5" from the pin. There are many different positions on the ball that are 5". Looking at the Figure 4, we can place a balance hole anywhere on this arc and it will remain 5" from the pin. The further out we put the hole towards the VAL, the more we are going to smooth out and slow down the reaction. This happens because the holes are further apart. The closer we get the hole towards the thumb, the faster this ball is going to transition. This happens because the holes are closer together creating a larger intermediate differential after drilling. It is important to note that you always need to make sure that tracking issues won't occur when determining where to place the balance hole. You will always want to throw the ball first and make sure you aren't placing the balance hole near any track flare. Keep in mind, if you are using a flare increasing hole (4" or more), the ball is going to flare more after the hole is drilled. You will need to put the hole further away from the flare rings.

 

 

Looking at balance holes like this makes it easier because it gives you consistency from ball to ball. The mass is being taken out of the same spot on the weight block to create a more consistent reaction regardless of the differences in layout. In Figure 5, the ball on the left is drilled 3 x 4 x 1 and the ball on the right is drilled 6 x 4 x 3. If both balls were to have a balance hole located on the PAP, the balance holes are not going to have the same effect on each of the balls. It's going to increase the total differential and lower the RG on the 6 x 4 x 3 ball because the balance hole is 6" from the pin. On the 3 x 4 x 1 ball, the balance hole is going to have less of an effect because it is drilled in the neutral zone of 3-4" from the pin. Keep in mind, all of this information is relative to all of the other pieces of the puzzle. Remember that Pin-to-PAP distance is going to be another variable influencing the reaction. Clearly a ball with a 6" pin-to-PAP distance is going to be cleaner through the front part of the lane and flare less. The location of the hole is one of the secondary factors that goes into ball reaction.

 

 
symmetrical verses asymmetrical

The last thing we cannot ignore is the effect of hole placement on a symmetrical versus an asymmetrical core. Take a look at Figure 6. Remember that an asymmetrical ball can be fine-tuned even further because of the presence of the PSA, or the preferred spin axis. The closer the balance hole is drilled to the PSA, the higher the intermediate differential is going to become. The ball is going to transition faster because it has a higher intermediate split. The further the balance hole is drilled from the PSA, the more intermediate differential you are drilling out of the ball. Essentially, you are drilling out some of the asymmetry which makes it transition slower as a symmetrical ball would. All the other principals aforementioned are the same regarding balance hole distance from the x-axis.

Essentially, if we put a 1 1/4"  hole 6 3/4" away from the pin and drill it 3 1/2" deep, we are going to significantly increase the total differential and lower the RG of the ball. This is going to result in it transitioning much faster and hooking more front to back and right to left overall. If we put a 1 1/4" hole through the pin drilled 3 1/2" deep, we are going to significantly decrease the total differential and raise the RG of the ball. This is going to result in the ball transitioning much slower and hooking much less front to back and right to left. If we decrease the size or the depth of these holes, we will reduce the impact that they had in their respective locations.

summary

In summary, you can really see how much of an effect can be created using different balance hole locations and sizes. Hopefully now, you have a better understanding of how balance holes further from the x-axis increase flare potential and balance holes closer to the x-axis decrease flare potential. Keep in mind that there are many pieces to the puzzle that is laying out a bowling ball. Some are more influential than others. This article strictly looks at the effects of balance holes and keeps all other variables constant. Learning more about how these variables work together to create good ball reaction is crucial to understanding what your ball is doing as it transitions down the lane. Knowledge is power - put them all together and you've got some serious power.

Always remember: not all balance holes are created equal!


Bowling for Health and Performance

There is an overlap between games and sports. Generally, sports require some sort of physical effort of specialized skill while games are more organized affairs with rules. The word game has several meanings. You can, for example, play a game of sports, but you can't sport a game. A good example would be if you think of the Olympics. The Olympics are referred to as the Olympic Games yet the game is a competition to collect as many medals as possible by partaking in specific sports. Whether you are a fulltime professional or a weekly leaguer, there’s no refuting that bowling deserves its place on the pillar amongst other sports. A physiological analysis confirms bowling requires strength, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility to perform in the upper echelons of the competitive scene. Long gone are the days of calling bowling a “pastime.” Cutting-edge knowledge and techniques are being applied to the training protocols of top professionals and Team USA members. Being cognizant of your personal fitness levels can only help propel you to the top of your game as well.

Physical activity alone promotes muscle toning and strengthening, weight loss, stress relief, and reduced risk of disease. Depending on your weight, you can burn 200-600 calories per hour of bowling. Not only does bowling favor the aforementioned benefits, it can improve your social life, increase hand-eye coordination, and can be enjoyed at any age. Unlike most sports, the health gains far outweigh the risks for injury. Incorporating strength training, cardio, and stretching into your daily routine will not only make you a better bowler, it will improve your overall quality of life.

It’s been noted that Alzheimer’s patients can benefit from bowling because it improves balance and preserves motor skills. Also, repetitive movements like that of bowling may decrease anxiety because patients don’t have to make decisions about the activity.

Warm-ups and flexibility have been traditionally linked, but it is important to differentiate between them as they have different key functions. Warm-up is designed to prepare an athlete for training or competition and can improve subsequent performance and lessen the risk of injury. A well-designed warm-up can increase muscle temperature, core temperature, and blood flow and also disrupt transient connective tissue bonds. These effects can have the following positive impacts on performance:

  • Faster muscle contraction and relaxation of both agonist and antagonist muscles
  • Improvements in the rate of force development and reaction time
  • Improvements in muscle strength and power
  • Lowered viscous resistance in muscles
  • Increased blood flow to active muscles
  • Enhanced metabolic reactions

The degree of movement that occurs at a joint is called the range of motion (ROM). The ROM of a particular joint is determined by a number of factors including connective tissue structure, activity level, age, and gender. Range of motion is specific to each joint’s anatomy and the movements required at that joint. Flexibility is a measure of ROM and has static and dynamic components. Static flexibility is the range of possible movement about a joint and its surrounding muscles during a passive movement. Static flexibility requires no voluntary muscle activity; an external force such as gravity, a partner, or a machine provides the force for a stretch. Dynamic flexibility refers to the available ROM during active movements and therefore requires voluntary muscular actions. Stretching should be performed following practice and competition. Post practice stretching facilitates ROM improvements because of increased muscle temperature. It should be performed 5 to 10 minutes after practice. The increased body temperature increases the elastic properties of collagen within muscles and tendons, which allows for a greater stretch magnitude. Post-practice stretching may also decrease muscle soreness. If increased levels of flexibility are required, additional stretching sessions may be needed. In this case, stretching should be preceded by a thorough warm-up to allow for the increase in muscle temperature necessary for effective stretching. This type of stretching can be especially useful as a recovery session on the day after a tournament or league play.

Bowling is primarily considered an anaerobic sport, or one that does not place a demand on the cardiovascular system such as running or swimming. It focuses on short bursts of anaerobic power that stress the musculoskeletal system instead of the circulatory and pulmonary systems. During activity, the degree to which aerobic and anaerobic systems contribute to the energy being produced is determined primarily by the intensity and secondarily by the duration. Because a bowling session can last a few hours over the course of several days in most tournaments, training the cardiovascular system is equally as important as training for strength and power.

Because bowling is predominantly an anaerobic activity where you don't get sweaty and winded, it may not look, or even feel, like you're exercising.

Bowling competitively requires a certain amount of physical prowess from head to toe. Strength training the upper body, core, and lower body is more important now than ever before. Exercises for your upper body you can do at home like push-ups, bicep curls, and dumbbell rows can go a long way for your game. Grip strength is a commonly forgotten area of great importance. Even squeezing a racquetball at your office desk as little as 10 minutes a day can help make that 15lb ball feel several pounds lighter over time. Lunges, squats, and calf raises are excellent strength building exercises for your lower body, but developing your stabilizer muscles via balance and isometric exercises can be a game changer.

Prime movers work more efficiently with strong stabilizer, or fixator, muscles. Stabilizers contract, primarily isometrically, to immobilize a limb so that another part of the body can act. For example, the hip flexors are immobilized during knee flexion, and the abdominal muscles serve as stabilizers when the arms rolls a ball. In bowling, when the core muscles act as stabilizers the trunk transmits leg power to the arms, which translates to ball speed. A weak stabilizer inhibits the contraction capacity of the prime movers. Improperly developed stabilizers may hamper the activity of major muscles. The arms and legs are only as strong as the trunk. A poorly developed core is a weak support for hard-working limbs. Strength training programs should first strengthen the core muscle before focusing on the arms and legs.